The diagnosis process in Unani system is dependent on observation and physical examination. Diagnosis involves investigating the causes of disease thoroughly and in detail. For this, the physicians depend mainly on pulse reading and examination of urine and stool.

Nabz (pulse)

The ten conditions of pulse observed during the diagnosis are:

Miqdaar-e Imbesat

(Degree of Expasion)

Kaifiyat-e Qarah

(Impaction on the Fingers)

Zamana-e Harkat

(Duration of Movement)

Qiwaam-e Ala

(Texture of Artery)

Khala wa Imtala

(Volume: emptiness and fullness of Artery)


(Feeling of hot & cold)

Zamaana-e Sukoon

(Duration of Rest)

Istawa wa Ikhtalaf

(equality & inequality)

Nizaam wa Adme Nizaam

(regularity or irregularity)


Baul (urine)

Physical Examination is carried out by the diagnosis of urinogenital disorders, pathogenesis of blood and other humors, metabolic disorders and liver diseases.

The following observations of urine are made:





Safai wa Kadoorat

(Clearness and Turbidity)




(Foam or froth)




Baraz (stool)

The examination of Stool, its colour, quantity, consistency and the presence of foreign body help very much in the diagnosis of various diseases. Besides the means of pulse reading and physical examination of urine and stool, other conventional means such as inspection, palpitation, percussion and occultation are also used for diagnosis purposes.

The following stools examinations are carried out:

Miqdaar-e Baraaz

(Quantity of stool)

Qiwaam-e Baraaz

(Consistency of stool)

Laun-e Baraaz

(Colour of stool)